תקצירי מאמרים באנגלית לקתדרה גליון 153
Settlement and Rule in the Eighth–Ninth Centuries CE:
The Arava as a Case Study
The archaeological data from the Arava provides a glimpse into a massive settlement phenomenon during the eighth and ninth centuries CE (the Early Islamic Period), which the literary sources do not mention. The material culture includes evidence of a copper industry, developed agriculture with qanats, and specific architecture. In this study, data from the excavations and surveys in both Jordan and Israel was gathered and settlement patterns were identified. Comparing the Arava patterns to possible criterions that identify ruler involvement in material culture implies, distinctively, intervention in the Arava settlement. First, Early Islamic settlement in the Arava is a one-time phenomenon; second, advanced technologies were used to exploit the area’s natural resources; and third, the city of Ayla and the courtyard houses reflect an administrative architecture. However, this study cannot determine whether the involvement is by a central or a local authority.
Haim Goren and Bruno Schelhaas
An Unknown Geodesical Measurement of Jerusalem in 1823
In 1822 and 1823 three young German travelers, Peter von Medem, Gustav Parthey, and Johann Heinrich Westphal, undertook a journey to Egypt and Palestine. One main result was a relatively accurate map of Jerusalem, published in 1825 by Heinrich Berghaus in his journal Hertha. This map was actually forgotten in the modern studies of the cartographic history of the city, but it belongs together with Franz Wilhelm Sieber’s plan (1818) to the very first 'modern' maps of Jerusalem, based on measurements and new scientific research results. The as yet almost unknown Westphal sketches, rediscovered lately by the authors in the map collection of the National Library (Prussian Cultural Possessions) in Berlin, as well as the diaries of Parthey and von Medem, also served as the material for Berghaus’ Memoir to his Map of Syria in 1835.
The article deals with the background of the voyage, the production and reception of the map, and the complex network of involved actors, based on archival sources. Besides Heinrich Berghaus’ influence and interest in the results of the journey, another network node seems to be obvious: Carl Ritter, the Geographical Society in Berlin, and his extensive and international sphere.
Procreation and Naming of Children as Fulfillment of National Sentiment in the First and Second Aliyah Settlements (1882–1914)
The article examines the perception of settlers in the settlements in Eretz Israel regarding their children, including reference to the circumcision of the boys and to parties marking the birth of girls, and especially the process of naming the children and the loaded meaning these names bore. The national movement saw in the children, the new generation, realization of the Zionist vision. This view was reflected in the lives of children from their birth and continued throughout the period of childhood.
From the examples cited in the article we can arrive at some conclusions: (1) The participation of all members of the settlement in ‘creating’ the next generation is notable. The couples were those who became pregnant and gave birth to children, but once they were born, there was a sense that they belonged to the entire society; (2) More than once, it was the teacher of the settlement who suggested the name of the child to the parents. This indicates the important role of the teacher in the developing society in Eretz Israel; (3) Noteworthy is the immense significance attributed to these names, through which the parents tried to instill in their children a sense of intimacy and solidarity with the national movement.
Samakh: The Rise and Fall of an Arab Town on the Shores of the Sea of Galilee - read online
The article deals with the story of the rise and fall of an Arab town on the southern shores of the Sea of Galilee. Samakh, which was founded by Algerian migrants at the end of the nineteenth century, quickly became one of the most prosperous towns in the north of the country. Its strategic location at the point where the borders of Palestine, Jordan, and Syria intersect, and its proximity to the water sources of the Sea of Galilee and two rivers, provided it with all the advantages of a transit town with its crossroads and train connections. The number of its inhabitants increased to about 4000 towards the end of the Mandate period. The upsurge in growth and expansion of Samakh which continued until the war of 1948 testifies to the processes of change and development that the country enjoyed in those days. At the same time, the bitter end and destruction which that war brought upon the town is testimony to the enormous catastrophe suffered by the Arab population in the Galilee during and after the 1948 war.
The Campaign to Eradicate Ringworm in the Jewish Community of Eretz Israel during the British Mandate Period
The year 1925 marked the beginning of a mass organized campaign for eradication of ringworm among children in the Jewish Community (Yishuv) in Eretz Israel under the British Mandate. Treatment was conducted through irradiation of the scalp, which at the time was considered the most advanced treatment available for this contagious disease. In the course of the campaign, which spanned the years 1925–1948, thousands of children in all sectors of the Jewish Community – both the Old Yishuv and the New Yishuv – were successfully treated, until the disease almost disappeared entirely. The research discourse is based on historical documentation in Israeli and international archives from the period that elucidates the history of dermatology and x-ray in the twentieth century in general, and of health and medicine in the Jewish Community in Eretz Israel in particular. The study presents the foundations that led to the adoption of a comprehensive treatment program for ringworm in the pre-state period, that subsequently served as a model for formulation of the program for a campaign against ringworm during the first decade of statehood. The research was carried out under the auspices of the Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Tel-Hashomer, Israel.
Israel Rozenson and Yossi Spanier
We Shall Return There Once Again –: The History and Symbolism of the Harel Monument at ‘Radar Hill’
The article deals with what is known as ‘the Harel monument’ located at the site called ‘Givat Haradar’ (Radar Hill) situated in the center of the Har-Adar settlement. The monument is very conspicuous in the surrounding hilly landscape. It can be seen from many of the hilltops in the Judean Mountains and overlooks them. The monument serves as an important tourist attraction, conveying a significant historical saga. It is a focal point and symbol of the adjoining settlement which bears its name – Har-Adar. In the article we present varying aspects of ‘the tale of the monument’, in particular the story of its erection which bears, in our opinion, a lesson about the culture of commemoration in Israel. The beginnings of the monument at its present location were when the soldiers of 1948 returned to the site during the Six Day War. Until that time they had only been able to look at the hill from afar and exchange memories.
The actual creation of the monument was the initiative in1968 of Yizhak Ben-Avraham of Kiryat ‘Anavim and Shlomo Ben-Chaim of Ma‘aleh Hahamishah. They began to develop the idea of commemoration with a regional emphasis giving prominence to the role played by the settlements. Eventually the project was administered by the senior veterans of the Harel Division under the leadership of its commander during the Six Day War, Uri Ben-Ari. After lengthy discussions and the incorporation of other agents, the necessary funds were made available. The monument was erected and dedicated in 1975.
The story of the monument is only one manifestation of the motivation of the Harel veterans to commemorate their unit. This impressive monument commemorates a unit which fought in the area during the War of Independence and again in the Six Day War. With the passage of time, and especially after the assassination of Yizhak Rabin who commanded it during the War of Independence, the whole area has become a place of commemoration, with the monument as its focal point.
‘Argumentum ex silentio non’ and ‘Alarming Silence’
This methodological article, a response to a review by Joseph Geiger (Cathedra 143 , pp. 185-188) points out a number of rules for distinguishing between cases in which there is no justification for argumentum ex silentio, and others that should be regarded as ‘alarming silence’, the latter indicating that the sources (or most of them) did not know anything about the subject. Occasionally (pending on a variety of considerations), such silence can be taken as evidence for the unreliability of the information on the subject, if it appears in other sources, or if it is a scholarly invention. The rules are illustrated by a detailed examination of two cases in which the silence speaks for itself:
(a) The absence of any reference in the works of Josephus to the enthusiastic excursus of Posidonius of Apamea on Mosaic Judaism (preserved by Strabo);
(b) The absence of a reference to the defense system and the water supply of the Jerusalem Temple by Timochares, probably a royal scribe who wrote in the days of Antiochus VII Sidetes and the siege of Jerusalem by Antiochus VII Sidetes.
In a lengthy note at the end of the article the author comments on the futile controversy about the silence of the pagan Greek and Roman sources over the legend about the visit of Alexander the Great in Jerusalem and the Jewish Temple, known from Jewish sources (first and foremost, Josephus Flavius).