Chronology

                      1933   1934   1935   1936   1937   1938   1939   1940

                                     1941   1942   1943   1944   1945

1933

January 30 – Adolf Hitler rises to power in Germany

1934

August 3-5 – The Pogrom (persecution of Jewish population) in Constantine, Algeria

The bulletin of the Federation of Jewish Communities in French Algeria is published

The three subdivisions: Fezzan, Tripolitania, and Cyrenaica, are merged into one colony, Libya, governed by Italo Balbo

A Jewish School is opened in Benghazi, with support from the Italian government; mandatory work on Saturdays (Shabbat) is enacted on customs officials

1935

March 15 – reports of a sailor from the ship Sebu spreading Nazi propaganda in French Morocco

July 21 – the Ship Larch anchors in Rabat's Port with Nazi propaganda on board, confiscated by the French authorities

Mussolini proclaims himself 'Protector of Islam' – promoting a policy of amity between the Fascist Party and the Arab world

A crisis arises from tensions between the heads of the Jewish community, the Chief Rabbi and the Italian Governor surrounding a case of marriage of an underage girl; the Chief Rabbi resigns and is expelled from Libya

Libyan Jews delegation to the 2nd Maccabiah Games

1936

The "Popular Front" government, led by Léon Blum, rises to power in France

The "Blum-Violette Proposal" is promulgated

Yehoshua Cohen Aloro founds a Betar branch in Algiers, Algeria

In Algeria, Rabbi Yosef Genassia begins publishing Nishmat Kol Hai [every living soul], a translation of the Mishnah into Judeo-Arabic.

March 11 – Messali Hadj founds the "Algerian People's Party" in Algeria

March 21 – End of Henri Ponsot's term in Morocco, replaced by Marcel Peyrouton

September 25 – Marcel Peyrouton is replaced by Charles Noguès in Morocco

Enacting the 'Shabbat Laws' on merchants – The Italian governor sentences two Jews to whipping, for closing shop on the Shabbat

1937

Inauguration of the Great Synagogue of Tunis, Tunisia

Founding of the "Algerian People's Party" in Algeria

Muslim congress of all political powers in Algeria

Rabbi Aldo Lattes of Rome is appointed Chief Rabbi of Libya

1938

The Italian Manifesto of Race is published

The Italian Racial Laws are promulgated and Jews are removed from office in Italy's embassy in Tunisia

The Italian "Laws for the Defense of the Race" are legislated in Libya

Jews are prohibited from studying alongside Italians in secondary schools in Libya

A law is promulgated, expelling Jews from public schools in Libya

The Italian "Laws for the Defense of the Race" are legislated

1939

September 3 – World War II breaks out

Libya is officially declared a part of Italy

The Italian government prohibits Zionist activity

1940

A first basic "Who is a Jew" law is promulgated as a Bey edict, unsdersigned by Esteva, the resident general of the French Protectorate of Tunisia.

June – Italy joins the axis powers and enters the World War; Italo Balbo dies in Libya

June 17 – France surrenders to Germany

June 22 – Armistice between France and Germany

June 24 – Armistice between France and Italy

Organized retribution of Muslems and French soldiers against the Jewish quarters of Fes, Morocco

July 3 – Destruction of the French Navy by the British Navy in Algeria

July – Advocate Helen Cazes-Ben-Atar establishes the 'Casablanca Council'

September – Allied bombardment in Tripoli. Italian forces invade British controlled territories in North Africa; all foreign citizens are expelled from Libya

Jewish citizens of Axis enemies are imprisoned in detainment camps

October – First steps towards organized Jewish Resistance in Algeria

October 7 – The Crémieux Decree is repealed in Algeria

October 3 – Anti-Jewish legislation (Statuts des Juifs) of the Vichy government in France

October 3 – the 'Statutes on Jews' is published, known as 'Aliver Law' in the Maghreb

October 7 – Repeal of the 'Crémieux Decree'; French citizenship of Algerian Jews is revoked

October 31 – An edict calling for implementation of the 'Statutes on Jews' is issued in Morocco

1941

Xavier Vallat, the anti-Semitic Jurist, is sent on behalf of the Office for "Jewish Matters in France" in order to expedite the "Policy on Jews".

Second Basic Law – Racial definition of "Who is a Jew"; French anti-Jewish laws are enacted – the Statutes on Jews.

January – The British [temporarily] conquer Libyan Cyrenaica

Tripoli Jews monopoly on wholesale commerce is nullified

January 9 – A permit was granted to found the Algerian 'Aid and Assistance Committee' (Comité d'Etude, d'Aide et d'Assistance)

February – German forces enter Tripoli

March 29 – The 'General Commission on Jewish Matters' is assembled in France

April – An edict for disbanding the 'Casablanca Council'

Axis forces retake Libyan Cyrenaica

Significant worsening in the general state of the communities; attacks on Jews in Benghazi, Libya

'Tripoli Women's Company' is assembled, aimed at aiding war victims in Libya

May 10 – Cessation of maritime transport between Marseilles and Fort-de-France

June 2 – The second 'Statutes on Jews' are promulgated, known as 'Vallat's Law' in the Maghreb; personal and civil rights of Jews are revoked and edicts and decrees against Jews are enacted

The Vichy regime promulgates the 'Jew Census Law', according to which all Jews of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia are to produce full and detailed records of their property and status

June 2 – The 'Statutes on Jews', Algerian Jews status is asserted

June 6 – A law prohibiting Jews from owning weapons or trading in gunpowder in Algeria

July 16 – The 'numerus clausus' law is enacted, preventing Jews from practicing free, 'Gold-Collar' vocations

July 22 – Edicts pertaining to Algerian Jews' property

August 18 – Xavier Vallat visits Morocco

August 19 – A decree prohibiting Moroccan Jews to reside in the European quarters in urban centers is promulgated

August 23 – Numerus Clausus in education in Algeria

November – Second British occupation of Libyan Cyrenaica

November 21 – Edicts pertaining to Algerian Jews' property

November 29 – Edict prohibiting Jewish Midwives to work in Algerian hospitals

Jewish swimmer Alfred Nakache sets a world record in a 200 meter swim

November-December – Implementation of the 'Statutes on Jews' and racial ordinances in Morocco

1942

January – Second Axis counter-attack in Libya. Expulsion of hundreds of foreign Jewish citizens out of Libya

February – Mussolini commands the "thinning" of the Jewish population in Libya

March 31 – The "General Union of Algerian Jews", a Jewish council, is assembled,

May – Rommel's forces push through to Egypt, stopped at El-Alamein

Transportation of Cyrenaica Jews into Jadu Camp in Libya

June – Worsening in anti-Semitic legislation; a thousand of Tripoli's Jews are sent to forced labor camps in Libya

October – Mandatory recruitment enacted in Libya

October-November – Battles of El-Alamein; Allied forces curb the Axis' assault; Allied invasion of Libya

First steps towards the rehabilitation of the Cyrenaica's communities in Libya

November 7-8 – Members of the Algerian Jewish Resistance take over Algiers and hand it over to the U.S. Army. Jewish Resistance activity in Algeria

November 8 – Pétain's regime declares truce in Algiers

November 8 – "Operation Torch", allied forces land in Algeria and Morocco, aided by the Jewish resistance

November 9 – German army forces arrive in Tunis. Tunisia is conquered by the Germans

November 11 – Militia members and the 'Fighter Legion' break into the Casablanca Jewish quarter, desecrating a synagogue, looting, vandalizing and violently attacking Jews. The Jewish quarter is surrounded by the Rabat police force. Members of the Jewish community of Beni-Mellal are arrested on the streets, robbed and abused, and their property confiscated

November 28 – Violence against the Jews of Rabat, Morocco

December 9 – The hunt for Jews for purposes of force labor begins in Tunisia. Edicts and heavy monetary fines are set and enacted on the Jewish community in Tunis

A French law calling for "Arization of Jewish property" [transfer of property into Aryan hands] is promulgated as a Bey edict – elimination of Jewish influence on national economy

Nähring, chief of the German southern command, orders all Jews to be recruited for fortification works in northern and southern Tunisia

Jewish soldier from Eretz Israel recruited to the British Army, who also volunteered as a teacher Nahum Yerushalmi, and the principal of the Alliance Israélite Universelle School in Eretz Israel (Land of Israel, British mandated Palestine), co-write a Hebrew book titled "The Tongue of Israel"

Under German order, a "Recruitment Council" of Jewish workforce is assembled, headed by Paul Ghez, for purposes of rounding up Jews for force labor

A first fine, for a sum of 20 million francs, is set upon the Jews, allegedly compensating for the victims of bombardments

A second fine, for a sum of 3 million francs, is set upon the Jews for not supplying force labor workers on due time

December 24 – Assassination of Admiral François Darlan

Albert Camus publishes The Stranger and The Myth of Sisyphus

1943

A decree is promulgated, ordering Tunisian Jews to wear a yellow badge

January – The British campaign for Libya is complete; detainees in force labor camps are released

January 28 – All edicts of Jewish property confiscation are repealed in Algeria

January – Churchill, Roosevelt and de Gaulle convene in the Casablanca Conference in Morocco

March – A British military rule is established in Libya

Renewed of the Zionist activity in Libya. Reopening of the Hebrew school in Benghazi; soldiers from Eretz Israel aid in the rehabilitation of the Jewish communities in Cyrenaica and promote Zionist activity

March 14 – Repeal of Racial Laws in Algeria

April – The Bermuda Conference decrees the establishment of a transition camp, in Morocco, for refugees evacuated from Spain

May 13 – Allied forces domination of Tunisia, liberation of Tunisia

End of term of Charles Noguès, replaced by Gabriel Puaux

April 1 – Reinstating Jews to their official posts in Tunisia

May 30 – De Gaulle receives control over Algeria

October – Libyan Jews imprisoned in Italy are taken to concentration camps in Europe

The return of detainees from Jadu Camp to their homes in the Jewish communities in Libya

Emissaries from the Jewish Settling of Palestine (Ha-Yishuv) arrive in Libya

October 20 – Annulment of the repeal of Crémieux Decree in Algeria

1944

April Visit of Moshe Sharet; Arrival of Israel Gur, emissary of the Mossad LeAliyah Bet [institution for Immigration B]. Establishment of agricultural training program in Zavia Farm in Libya

July 30 – Moroccan Goumier soldiers set out for violent retribution against Jews in Sefrou, Morocco

November – Emergency conference of the World Jewish Congress in Atlantic City, NJ, USA

1945

May 7 – Re-organization of the Jewish Community Councils

November – Riots against Tripoli Jews; Riots spread to other Libyan cities. Community youths establish a self-defense organization

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