תקציר המושב השני כנס צפון אפריקה ויהודיה בתקופת מלחמת העולם השנייה, מחקרים חדשים

 

 

רחל סימון

חזית העורף: יהודי ערי השדה בלוב בזמן מלחמת העולם השנייה

 

Rachel Simon

Home Front: Jews in the Libyan Countryside during WWII

 

Several studies examined the overall condition of Libya’s Jews during WWII, covering, among other topics, the racist anti-Semitic legislation and its implications, forced labor, internal transfer to concentration camps, expulsion from Libya of British and French enemy citizens, some of whom eventually reached Nazi concentration camps in Europe, the unique position of the Jewish Palestinian soldiers in the British Army, and the actual fighting in Libya. On the background of existing studies and based on published memoirs and interviews, the current paper turns from examining the “big pictureand major processes to focus on life of common Jews in Libya during the war, mainly in small towns in the countryside (e.g., how did individual Jews react to the fighting? How were Jewish-Muslim relations influenced by the war? How did the war shape the encounters between the Italian and Jewish leaderships and between common Italians and Jews? What was the impact of the war on Jewish youth? How did local rabbis react to the war?) The paper examines how Libyan Jews as individuals reacted to the changed realities, in which the power which for several decades represented to them progress and emancipationItalyturned out to deprive their status politically, economically, socially and culturally and even to threaten their existence. Another question is, did Jews reach any operative or ideological conclusions following their shattered hopes and beliefs.

 

 

דניאל זיסנויין

אוהדים אדישים: פעילים לאומיים מרוקנים ויהודי מרוקו בתקופת מלחמת העולם השנייה (א)

 

Daniel Zisenwine.

 Moshe Dayan Center, Tel Aviv University

Moroccan Nationalists and Moroccan Jews during World War II

 

Although World War II was a short-term event in Moroccan history, its impact on Moroccan politics was extensive. The war introduced new ideas into Morocco's political discourse, altered existing perceptions, and transformed its social and political structures. Its impact on Moroccan nationalism was particularly profound. Prior to the war's outbreak, Moroccan nationalists focused their attention on demands for reform within the French protectorate's framework. The French defeat in 1940, and the expectations of a new post-war order led Moroccan nationalists to reconsider their demands, and press for the abrogation of the protectorate treaty and the restoration of the country's independence. The establishment of the Istiqlal (Independence) nationalist party in late 1943 underscores the ideological and structural changes within the nationalist movement.

 

As part of a broader effort to trace the shift in the focus and orientation of Moroccan nationalists during the war, this paper will focus on their interest in the fate of Moroccan Jews, and the plight of European Jewry during this period. We will highlight opinions concerning Moroccan Jews in the emerging nationalist movement, and present the common themes within Moroccan nationalism concerning this issue.   As we will see, many nationalists were sympathetic to the Moroccan Jewish community, and to European Jews, but were largely disinterested in extending themselves towards them. The Islamic impact on Moroccan nationalism left little room for incorporating non-Muslims into its ranks, leaving the nationalists as "disinterested sympathizers".

 

This paper sheds new light on aspects of Moroccan nationalism that have not been widely discussed. In addition, it reconsiders the social and political situation of Moroccan Jews during the war, as seen from the Muslim perspective.

 

פיליפו פטרוצ'י

השלמת מסע אנטישמי ארוך: ביטול צו כרמייה ותגובות האוכלוסייה האלג'יראית (צ)

 

Filippo Petrucci

L’accomplissement d’un long chemin antisémite : l’abolition du Décret Crémieux en Algérie et la réaction de la population algérienne

 

Dans mon intervention je veux parler des effets de l’abolition du Décret Crémieux et des réactions des différentes communautés qui vivaient à l’époque en Algérie.

Je parle d’un long chemin parce que l’antisémitisme il a toujours existé en Algérie et, selon la période, l’abolition du Décret Crémieux était l’objectif principal de son action.

 

Ce qui est aussi important pour moi est la examiner comment les trois communautés ont-elles réagi : la presque indifférence de la masse musulmane, la triste surprise de la communauté juive, l’acceptation passive des lois vichystes da la pars des français.

Donc voir comme la réalisation sur place des lois racistes a su changer une situation qui existait depuis 70 et qui semblait être devenue définitive pour l’Algérie. Mais aussi montrer que l’antisémitisme a été toujours en Algérie (aussi bien avant la période de Vichy) une présence essentielle du débat politique.

 

 

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כנסים בין לאומיים נוספים
צפון אפריקה ויהודיה בתקופת מלחמת העולם השנייה, מחקרים חדשים
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Conférence internationale, Mémorial de la Shoah 2012
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